Manchester – Royal Infirmary Public Baths 1781 – 1847

Author & Research by Carl Evans February 2022

Manchester Royal Infirmary and Lunatic Hospital

 Fig 1 Charles White (1728 to 1813) First Surgeon to the Manchester Royal Infirmary William Tate

The Manchester Royal Infirmary was co-founded in 1752 by a Manchester Doctor Charles White with the financial aid of Mr. Joseph Bancroft a local merchant. Dr. White was elected Fellow of the Royal Society 18th February 1762[1] and took an active role in establishing the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society. He was one of the founders of the College of Arts and Sciences and lectured on anatomy. He delivered the first public lectures on anatomy in Manchester[2]. Dr. White along with his son Dr. Thomas White, Dr. Edward Hall and Dr. Richard Hall also founded the Lying in Hospital in 1790 later to become the St Mary’s Hospital[3].

The original twelve bed hospital, financed by subscriptions, was established in a house on Garden Street or Lane in Shude Hill and opened on Monday 27th July 1752[4]. The first in-patient was admitted Monday 3rd August. The original office bearers were Mr. Joseph Bancroft, Treasurer; Mr Dauntesey Smith, Secretary and Mrs. Anne Worral, Matron. There were three physicians, Drs Mainwaring, Walker and Kay and three surgeons, Messrs Burchall, Charles White and Edward Hall[5].

The hospital moved to a larger building erected on land, now known as Piccadilly Gardens, that had been donated by the then Lord of the Manor of Manchester Sir Oswald Mosley[6] in 1756. At the time the area was known as the ‘Daube Holes’ because it was used as a clay pit.

Fig 2 Part of Casson & Berry’s map of Manchester 1754 From W. Brockbank Portrait of a Hospital 1952 p.2

Part of the c.1754 Casson & Berry map of Manchester[7] (Fig 2) shows the location of the original Infirmary in Garden Street (Lane) shown in the bottom left-hand corner. The site of the second building is shown in the upper left-hand corner alongside the Daube Holes.

In 1763 the Trustees accepted a recommendation to construct the Manchester Royal Lunatic Hospital. A subscription was opened, and the building was commissioned on the 21st March 1764.  The building was erected next to the Manchester Royal Infirmary and, in an incomplete state, accepted the first twenty-two patients in 1765[8]. In 1850 the Lunatic Hospital moved to a new building in Cheadle known as the Cheadle Royal Hospital for the Insane[9].

Fig 3 The Manchester Royal Infirmary and Lunatic Asylum 1780 Manchester Evening News 23 August 2020

Fig 4 Manchester Royal Infirmary 1885 Francis Frith Collection FindMy Past

In 1908 the Manchester Royal Infirmary relocated to Oxford Road and was formally opened on the 6th July 1909 by King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra. The key to the old building were handed over to the deputy Town Clerk on 19th December 1908[10]. Demolition was completed by April 1910.

Provision of the Public Baths

In October 1777, twenty-five years after the original Infirmary opened, the Board of Trustees considered the ‘desirability of having baths erected for the use of the patients primarily, available also for the outside public on a suitable payment being made[11].

In June 1779 the decision was made to erect a complete set of cold, warm and vapour baths at the expense of the Infirmary[12]. It was decided that the baths would not serve the needs of patients but to provide bathing facilities to those that could afford the subscription or pay the price for single sessions. The baths were to operate at a profit to support Infirmary[13].

The 26th of June edition of the Manchester Mercury carried an announcement[14] that the baths opened in 1781[15].

‘THAT there is now open near the Public Infirmary, in Manchester compleat and elegant Set of BATHS, with suitable Accommodations for Gentlemen and Ladies…’

Prices were advertised as;

  • Gentleman’s & Ladies Cold Bath, 6 pence each Time, Two Guineas per Annum, 15 Shillings per Quarter
  • Buxton Bath, 1 Shilling
  • Gentleman’s & Ladies Hot Bath, 3 Shillings
  • Gentleman’s & Ladies Vapour Bath, 5 Shillings
  • Hot and Vapour Bath, Almond Bath, 6 Shillings
  • Sweating Rooms, 2 Shillings

The charges for Trustees and Subscribers to the Infirmary were;

  • Cold Bath, 6 pence, or One Guinea per Annum, or Half Guinea per Quarter
  • Hot Bath, 2 Shillings
  • Vapour Bath, 4 Shillings
  • Vapour and Hot Bath, 5 Shillings
  • Almond Bath, 5 Shillings

Bathing on a Sunday was charged at double except in cases of exigency with notice being given the evening before.

Ladies bathing times in the Buxton Bath was from 9.00am to 11.00am and from 6.00pm to 8.00pm.

The notice also advised;

‘Gentlemen Bathers in the Cold or Buxton Baths, to provide their own Dresses, or Pay 3d. each Time.
Ladies to find their own Dresses, or pay 6d. each Time.
No Vails[16] to be taken by the Servants upon Pain of Dismission.

N. B. A perfect set of Baths is provided for the Patients of the Infirmary and Lunatic Hospital.

Advertising in Leeds

It is interesting to note that identical advertisements appeared in the ‘Leeds Intelligencer’ during May and June 1781[17].

Fig 5 Part of the Charles Laurent Engineer 1793 Map of Manchester and Salford showing the location of the Manchester Royal Infirmary, Lunatic Asylum and Public Baths

Joseph Aston’s Guide to Manchester and Salford 1804

The Public Baths were described in Joseph Aston’s Guide to Manchester and Salford published in 1804.

The PUBLIC BATHS must be mentioned in this place, notwithstanding they are not made use of as a charity. But being under the management, and being, in fact, the property of the Trustees of the Infirmary, and the profits being applied to that charity, they could not, ‘ with any propriety, be mentioned under any other head. They are situated, at the entrance of the “Infirmary Walks” and consist of HOT, TEPID, VAPOUR, and Cold Baths, which are inclosed in a neat low building, and are kept in a very clean and neat manner, and have comfortable dressing rooms attached to each. They are very well regulated by rules, which are framed, and hung up in the different parts of the Baths [18].

The ‘Cold Bath’ was to be found in a large and convenient lower apartment, with adjoining dressing rooms. The bath was supplied with water from a spring that had a great reputation, and is remarkably cold and pure for bathing each time[19]. The charge for this bath including the use of towels was sixpence. A Shower bath could also be had at the same price.

The publication also presented the rules applying to customers.

Rules

  • No person to be admitted to see the Baths, but in the presence of, or by a note from a Trustee; nor to see the ‘Copper Room[20]’, without a note from the Treasurer.
  • All persons to pay for bathing before they are admitted to the baths.
  • All subscribers to the baths, to pay their subscriptions the first time of bathing.
  • All persons that spit in the bath to pay six-pence; or if they otherwise defile them, to be excluded bathing any more.
  • Individuals or Families, subscribing according to the following rates, shall have liberty to use any of the Baths, during the space of twelve months, from the time of paying their respective subscriptions; but, at the termination of this period, if the amount of the bathings shall exceed that of the sums advanced, the subscribers shall pay the difference, according to the rules specified in the several divisions in the table.
  • Under the denomination of a Family, all persons, constantly residing in the house of the subscriber, except lodgers, boarders, and servants, are meant be included.
  • Wrapping gowns and towels are provided, without any expence to the bathers.
  • The attendants on the baths are not allowed to receive any gratuities.
  • Non-subscribers are to pay at the time of bathing.
  • Subscribers are to deposit the amount of their subscriptions when they enter their names.
  • Persons bathing on Sundays are to pay double prices.
  • Patients at the Infirmary are never permitted to use these baths, as there are separate baths provided for them in the hospital.

Charges

The original charges set in June 1779 are presented above. The charges levied were revised throughout the history of the baths and were adjusted in response to demand and the services offered. Charges were different for subscribers and non-subscribers and various promotional charges were adopted as presented below.

In 1786 it was found possible to reduce the charge for bathing. Ladies and gentlemen could now use the cold bath for one guinea a year and the Buxton bath for two guineas. The price of warm and vapour baths was maintained, but each bather was allowed to have the seventh bath free of charge[21].

Details of the charges levied over the period the baths operated are presented in the general discussion below. However, it is of interest to compare specific charges over the period individually to appreciate how charging was generally approached and evolved over time.

Comparative Charges for Non-Subscribers

 

June 1779

July 1790

April 1811

October 1827

1841

Cold Bath

0s 6d

0s 9d

0s 8d

1s 0d

1s 0d

Buxton Bath

1s 0d

1s 8d

1s 6d

1s 6d

1s 6d

Matlock Bath

 

1s 8d

1s 6d

1s 6d

1s 6d

Hot Bath

3s 0d

4s 0d

4s 0d

4s 0d

2s 6d

Vapour Bath

6s 0d

6s 0d

5s 0d

5s 0d

2s 6d

Hot Bath & Vapour Bath

 

7s 6d

6s 0d

6s 0d

4s 0d

Sulphurous Fumigating Baths

 

 

 

3s 0d

3s 0d
12 Baths

30s 0d

Sulphurous Harrogate Baths

 

 

 

4s 0d

4s 0d

12 baths

36s 0d

Sulphurous Shampooing Baths

 

 

 

7s 0d

7s 0d

12 Baths 30s 0d

Comparative Charges for Subscribers Paying One Guinee per Annum

 

June 1779

July 1790

April 1811

October 1827

1841

Cold Bath

0s 6d

0s 4d

0s 6d

0s 9d

0s 9d

Buxton Bath

1s 0d

0s 8d

1s 0d

1s 0d

1s 0d

Matlock Bath

 

0s 8d

1s 0d

1s 0d

1s 0d

Hot Bath

2s 0d

2s 0d

3s 0d

3s 0d

2s 0d

Vapour Bath

4s 0d

3s 3d

4s 0d

4s 0d

2s 0d

Hot Bath & Vapour Bath

5s 0d

4s 3d

4s 6d

4s 6d

3s 0d

Terms of Bathing 22nd July 1790

Fig 6 Terms of Bathing Taken from Joseph Aston, The Manchester Guide – A Brief Description of the Towns of Manchester and Salford 1804 p.171

Terms of Bathing 22nd April 1811

Revised terms of bathing were advertised as from 22nd April 1811[22].

MANCHESTER BATHS are always kept in good order; the water supplied from a spring, and perfectly clear. The Matlock and Buxton are constantly ready. The Vapour and Hot Baths will be made so at two hours’ notice. Separate Baths are provided for the ladies.

 

Non-Subscribers to pay for each Bathing

Subscribers for each Individual or Families

½ Guinee

Subscribers for each Individual or Families

1 Guinee

For the Cold Bath

0s 8d

0s 7d

0s 6d

Matlock or Buxton

1s 6d

1s 2d

1s 0d

Hot Bath

4s 0d

3s 6d

3s 0d

Vapour Bath

5s 0d

4s 6d

4s 0d

Vapour and Hot Bath

6s 0d

5s 0d

4s 6d


Water Supply 1813

In 1813 An offer was made by “the Waterworks Company” to supply the Infirmary and Baths with water, gratuitously, from their Mosley Street branch pipes[23].

Sulphur Baths 1826 and 1827

Changes to the facilities were regularly considered and implemented throughout the life of the building. In 1826 The architect reported that a reconstruction of the Harrogate and Sulphur Baths would entail an expenditure of £280[24]. The Sulphur Baths were made available for use[25] in 1827.

The completion of this project prompted a significant report in the Manchester Mercury Tuesday 30th October 1827.

PUBLIC BATHS – MANCHESTER INFIRMARY Weekly Board 22nd October 1827

  1. O. GILL, Esq. in the Chair.

The Weekly Board has the satisfaction to announce to the public, that the SULPHUR BATHS are now completed, and ready for use.

Two baths are erected for the purpose of applying sulphur in the form of vapour, either generally or topically, and to these baths, dressing rooms are annexed, so render them private, convenient, and comfortable.

Besides the sulphur vapour baths, which are so constructed as not to send out any unpleasant exhalation, two water baths, impregnated with sulphur in imitation of the Harrogate water, are provided in separate apartments, which are also fitted up with every attention convenience and comfort.

But though these baths will, in general, be medicated with sulphur, they may, at the option of the parties, be medicated with any other medicinal substance, convertible by heat into, vapour, in the vapour baths or susceptible of solution in water in the water baths.

And, that no means of relief which baths and their appendages can supply the invalid, may be omitted – leeching, cupping, and shampooing will administered, conformably to the directions given.

Thus, in connection with the former establishment, the public will be accommodated with baths of the natural.

Matlock, Buxton, or any higher degree of temperature, unmediated or with medicated baths of every variety; – and such other concurrent aids, as may occasionally required.

N.B. It may be proper to notice, that all these baths are exclusively for the use of the public; and that the income arising from them appropriated the support the Infirmary,

Baths of a similar nature, for the use of the patients, are separately established in distant and are altogether unconnected with these baths.

  1. O. GILL, Chairman.

Rules and Regulations for the Public Baths, in Manchester

1st. All persons pay for bathing before they are admitted to the bath.
2nd. All subscribers to the baths to pay their subscription the first time of bathing.
3rd. The Matlock. Buxton, and private hot baths, are constantly kept ready and the vapour bath will half hour’s notice.
4th. Persons bathing on Sundays pay double prices.
5th. All persons that spit In the baths, to pay one shilling; and no person will be permitted to make any future use of these baths, who shall have defiled, or Improperly used them.

Terms of Bathing, as established 22nd October 1827

 

Non-Subscribers to pay for each Bathing

Subscribers for each Individual or Families

½ Guinee

Subscribers for each Individual or Families

1 Guinee

For the Cold Bath, Cold Shower

1s 0d

0s 10d

0s 9d

Tepid Bath or Shower, Matlock Bath, Buxton Bath

1s 6d

1s 3d

1s 0d

Warm or Hot Bath, Hot Air Bath

4s 0d

3s 6d

3s 0d

Vapour Bath

5s 0d

4s 6d

4s 0d

Vapour and Hot Bath when used together

6s 0d

5s 0d

4s 6d

 Individuals or families subscribing according to the foregoing rates, shall have the liberty to use any of the above baths during the space of twelve months from the time of subscribing: but in case the amount of their bathed out before the expiration the twelve months, the subscriber shall either renew his subscription immediately, or pay the rate non subscriber rate, each time the bath is used.

Wrapping gowns and towels are provided without any expense the bathers, and the servants are not allowed to receive gratuities.

Terms of the shampooing and Medicated Baths

For the sulphurous Fumigating baths 3s
For the sulphurous Harrogate baths 4s
For the sulphurous Shampooing baths 7s

Pigot & Slater’s General and Classified Directory of Manchester and Salford 1841

A detailed listing describing the Baths was published in the Pigot & Slater’s Directory entitled ‘Public Buildings, Offices, Institutions, &c. Manchester Royal Infirmary, Dispensary, Lunatic Hospital & Asylum[26].

BATHS

Public Infirmary Baths

The Sulphureous Fumigating Baths are erected for the purpose of applying Sulphur in the form of Vapour. Either generally or topically: are so constructed as not to send out any unpleasant exhalation.

The New Water Baths will be impregnated with Sulphur and other medicinal substances, in imitation of Harrogate water. But though these baths will, in general, be medicated with Sulphur, they may, at the option of parties, be medicated with any other medicinal substance convertible by heat into vapour, in the Fumigating Baths; or susceptible of solution in water, in the Water Baths.

To all the Baths dressing-rooms and annexed, so as to render them private, convenient, and comfortable. And, that no means of relief, which Baths and their appendages can supply to the invalid, may be omitted, Leeching, Cupping and Shampooing will be administered conformably to the directions given.

Thus, the Public will be accommodated with Baths of natural, Matlock. Buxton, or any higher degree of temperature, unmedicated; or with medicated Baths of every variety, and such other concurrent aids as may be occasionally required.

N.B. – These baths are exclusively for the use of the Public, and the income arising from them is appropriated towards the support of the Infirmary.

Baths of a similar nature, for the use of the patients, are separately established in a distant situation, and are altogether unconnected with these Baths.

TERMS OF THE USE OF THE BATHS

 

Non-subscribers
to pay

Subscribers
of half a guinea

Subscribers
of a guinea

For a Cold Bath, or Cold Shower Bath

1s 0d

0s 10d

0s 9d

Matlock or Buxton Bath

1s 6d

1s 3d

1s 0d

Private Warm or Hot Water Bath

2s 6d

2s 3d

2s 0d

Warm Shower Bath

1s 6d

1s 6d

1s 0d

Vapour Bath

2s 6d

2s 3d

2s 0d

Vapour & Hot Bath when used together

4s 0d

3s 6d

3s 0d

Harrogate Water Bath

4s 0d or for 12 baths 36s 0d

(Children under 7 years of age)

2s 6d

Bath of other Medicated Water

3s 0d or for 12 Baths 30s 0d

Hot Air Bath

3s 0d or for 12 Baths 30s 0d

Sulphurous Fumigating Bath

3s 0d or for 12 Baths 30s 0d

Shampooing Bath

7s 0d or for 12 Baths 30s 0d

 Any further information, relating to the Baths, may be obtained by applying to Mr. John Haworth, the Superintendent, at his Residence within the Gates of the Infirmary.

The ground plan (Fig 8) shows this accommodation as Bath Keepers House.

Big Hospital Projects Under Consideration 1844

William Brockbank[27] explains that in 1844 several big projects for the Infirmary and Hospital were under consideration. It was decided to move the Lunatic Asylum ‘out into the country’ and there should be a major extension to the Infirmary building. The Bathman also asked for works to be carried out at the Baths.

At this time the Board was averse to spending money on the baths, but some works were carried out. It was decided to remove the Buxton Bath that had held 3,400 gallons of water and was heated to ninety-two degrees Fahrenheit. This bath had been open all the year round[28]. The Matlock Bath, holding 6,200 gallons heated to eighty-two degrees Fahrenheit was open in the summer months only[29] was also to close. It was reported that neither was paying for itself, there being a strong feeling against bathing in warm water which had been bathed in by so many persons[30].

In their place it was eventually decided to construct one first-class and thirteen second-class warm baths at a cost of £400, charging 2s. 6d. for the use of the former and 1s. for the latter, including two towels and a piece of scented soap, the temperature of the bath to be as required. A water closet was also fixed for the convenience of persons frequenting the baths[31].

These changes quickly brought their reward, a profit of £400 being made in the first year[32].

Extensive Enlargement and Alterations 1845

Newspaper advertisements during 1845 announced that the baths would be open for public use on Monday, 5th of May[33].

The baths had been undergoing extensive enlargement and alterations, and when complete would be found to possess every comfort and convenience.

The first-class baths, with superior accommodation, will be charged the reduced price of Two Shillings for each bath.

To meet the increasing demand for Warm Baths, there is being extensively provided a SECOND CLASS BATH, which will be furnished with every requisite, at further reduced price of One Shilling each bath.

Subsequent advertisements advised that additional services were also available[34];

Cold or Shower Baths 9d, Vapour Bath, Sulphurous, Fumigating, and Shampooing Baths.

Usage

In 1808 some statistics were published describing the usage of the baths;

During a twelve-month period 4,654 baths had been taken of these 235 had been Vapour and hot baths[35].

These figures took no account of the baths taken by physicians and surgeons or by any one belonging to the Infirmary. No fewer than 1,202 dozen towels were washed at a cost of twenty-five pounds. The figures varied greatly in the four quarters of the year, being 57,348, 572 and 225, so that bathing in the winter months was not a popular pastime. On an average three towels were used for one bathing. The prices then were 8d. for a cold bath, 1s. 6d. for a Matlock or Buxton Bath, 4s. for a hot bath and 5s. for a vapour bath. Subscribers were still given slightly more favourable terms.

Profitability & Popularity

The Baths had been established on the basis that they were to realise a profit and so support the work of the Infirmary and Lunatic Hospital. According to William Brockbank writing in 1836 the Trustees Annual Report dated June 1781 stated that the Turstees[36];

…have pleasure to observe the profits have greatly exceeded their expectations, whilst the public as a very moderate expense may have the use of one of the most complete and elegant sets of baths in the kingdom.

The baths were so popular that they had to be frequently extended[37]

William Brockbank also states;

Over a period of fourteen years the Baths had made a three-figure profit on all but three occasions when there was a loss on two occasions a big loss due to capital expenditure. Over the whole period there was an average annual profit of ninety-five pounds. The Board celebrated this by allowing the resident medical officers to bath free of charge provide they did so ‘judiciously and not more often than once a day.[38].

Renaud writes that in 1838;

The gross receipts from the general and sulphur baths was £433; the outlay, £284; the profit derived, £148[39].

Internal Layout of the Baths

The baths were extended and changed over time to reflect the growing demand and the decline in popularity of some provision. W. Brockbank provides a snapshot of the internal layout of the Baths, Infirmary and Lunatic Asylum in 1845 (Fig 8).

Fig 7 Ground Plan of The Baths, The Infirmary and the Lunatic Hospital 1845 W. Brockbank, Portrait of a Hospital, William Heinemann Ltd 1952 p.80

An enlarged view of the Bath (Fig 8) shows at one end the Bath Keepers House and at the other a Reservoir. This house was also referred to as being the Superintendents House[40]. The large ovals would probably have been the Buxton and Matlock Baths. Two external entrances can be identified probably for Gentleman and Ladies.

Fig 8 Internal Layout of the Manchester Infirmary Public Baths 1845

Concerns about Venereal Disease

Venereal disease appears to have been a concern for many years. In 1752 it was recorded that no person who is supposed to have venereal disease be admitted to the Infirmary as an in patient on any account whatsoever[41]. However, in 1758 it was eventually agreed to admit into the house venereal patients who have contracted the distemper innocently[42].

The concern extended to the use of the Baths and It was ordered that no person with venereal disease should bathe in either of the Buxton baths. These held several thousand gallons of water, the heat being regulated so as not to exceed 82 degrees[43].

Superintendents

Whilst the Baths opened in 1781 currently available sources only mention the position of ‘Superintendent’ from 1798.  The 1845 Ground Floor Plan of the Baths 1845 (Fig 8) shows a Bath Mans House which is also referred to as the Superintendents House[44]. It may be that there was a management structure in place that changed over time and that perhaps provided for a Superintendent and a Bath Man to be in place at the same time.

Also, the title applied to the person holding responsibility for the management of the Baths appears to have been interchangeable. The designations used were Keeper[45], Cupper & Superintendent[46], Bath Man[47].

Three men held the position of Superintendent during the existence of the Baths. They also carried on the business and profession of ‘cupper’. ‘Cupping’ alongside ‘bleeding’ were common treatments of the time. The treatment involves the application of a specially shaped heated glass being applied to the skin. The vacuum created by the glass cooling is to increase blood flow in the area and historically to extract harmful substances. The practice is employed today as an alternative therapy to help with pain, inflammation, blood flow, relaxation.

Mr. William and Ann Howarth

Mr. William and Ann Howarth were elected to take upon themselves the management of the Baths at Christmas 1798[48]. Consequently, the establishment was sometimes referred to as “Howarth’s Baths”. William Howarth also carried out the practice of ‘cupping’[49].

In 1799 A Steam Engine was provided for raising a sufficient supply of water for the use of the baths as well as the hospital and the old wooden pipes already decayed were replaced with[50] pipes made of burnt clay.

In 1812 Mr. Howarth and Infirmary Board entered into an agreement that he was in future to cup the hospital patients gratuitously, and that such emoluments derivable from private patients as might accrue to him as “Cupper to the Infirmary,” should be divisible between himself and the Board, in equal proportions[51].

This situation appears to have continued until 1824 when the Board requested Mr. Haworth to give necessary instructions to the apprentices for qualifying them as cuppers; and on his declining this office, he received a notice to quit[52].

Subsequently, on the 25th March 1825, Mr. Howarth announced the opening of his new ‘Cupping’ business that also included an offering of Slipper, Hip and Shower baths for hire. The business was located close to the Infirmary at No. 10 Grosvenor Street, Chatham Street, Piccadilly, two doors from Mr. Roby’s Chapel[53].

Mr. William Gaylor

Mr. William Gaylor was appointed as his replacement and announced his move from his established premises to the Public Baths in July 1825[54].

Cupping, the expert performance of which is only to be attained by considerable practice; this he flatters himself he possesses, having to perform upwards of 1,200 operations per annum, for the infirmary alone his instruments are of the best quality, and he invariably uses the Lamp in the performance of this operation. None but perfectly fresh Leeches are ever sent out, with expert, orderly, male and female attendants to apply them.

Whilst holding the position of Superintendent he also instructed apprentices in the operation of cupping and carried on his business as cupper and bleeder and wholesale dealer in leeches[55]. He was reported as being the supplier of leeches to the hospital in 1832[56]. He may have been doing so since 1782 when the first mention of ‘Leeches’ appears in the hospital accounts. According to F. Renaud[57] Mr Gaylor resigned his appointment in 1838 having served in this position for 22 years.  There may be some reason to question this assertion as if Mr. Gaylor took up the position in 1825, as the newspaper advertisements indicate, it would not have been possible for him to have served for 22 years. However, he may already have been in the employ of the hospital as a ‘Cupper’ before his appointment as Superintendent.  At the time of his appointment, he had advertised that he had been providing these services to the Infirmary. He may therefore have been in the service of the Infirmary for 22 commencing in 1816.

Mr John Haworth

Mr John Haworth, the son of Mr. William Howarth succeeded Mr Gaylor in 1838 and also instructed the apprentices in the operation of cupping[58]. In 1836 His salary from all sources, … amounted to £160 yearly. In addition, he was given an allowance for washing towels at the rate of sixpence a dozen[59]. John Haworth was also an active member of Manchester City Council. He died in 1886 at the age of 85 in Southport[60].

Limitations of Currently Available Sources

Using current available sources there is some difficulty in accurately identifying the specific dates individuals held their positions or who held responsibility for Baths prior to the appointment of a Superintendent in 1798. Also, there is some ambiguity in descriptions as to the role of Superintendent and the persons responsible for offering ‘cupping’ and other remedial services.

Closure of the Baths

In 1845 whilst the baths were still contributing financially their future was being discussed. An opinion was expressed by the Board to the effect that it would be more expedient to discontinue the Baths rather than expend a large sum in the erection of new ones, rendered necessary by a widening of Bath Street[61].

Finally in 1847 a decision was made as to the future of the Baths and an announcement was reported in the Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 

The Infirmary Bath

By a resolution come to be the Trustees of the Royal Infirmary as a special general meeting on Wednesday, these baths are to be discontinued[62]

Disposal of Fixtures, Utensils and Furniture

The decision to close the Baths was quickly followed by the disposal of its various fixtures, furniture, and equipment. The auction was advertised in the Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser[63] and this includes a comprehensive list of the equipment and fittings contained in the Baths and so offers an insight into the physical nature of the establishment.

Manchester Royal Infirmary Baths. By CAPES & SMITH, on Monday the 4th October, 1847, ten o’clock in the morning, the establishment situate in George street, FIXTURES, UTENSILS, and FURNITURE therein, comprising several HOT and COLD WATER BATHS, some made of slate and others of wood, painted in imitation of oak, and cased with porcelain, and all with marble copings, brass taps, and valves; two oak-painted sulphur, and two vapour baths, lined with tiles, and with valves and chairs; two bird’s-eye maple-painted shower baths, with force pumps; two water cisterns, lined with lead, each 9ft long, 4ft 6in wide and 6ft deep; water closet with water and soil piping complete; register and other fire grates, kitchen ranges, with side and back boilers; capital zinc slipper bath, portable Warner; small copper boiler, with door, bars and brickwork; excellent garden engine and pump, five-light gas meter, with case, stop tap, piping, and 31 bracket burners; hot air stoves, one of them Arnott’s patent; oak-painted partitioning, with doors, good order; seven copper towel warmers, napkin press, dozen towels, and the customary furniture and appendages used in the dressing rooms. Catalogues will be ready on Saturday, the 2nd October, when the whole can be seen.

The building was demolished in 1848 and was reported at the Manchester Royal Infirmary Annual General Meeting in September 1849[64].


The next account read was that relating to the pulling down of the late Infirmary Baths, and the widening of Parker and Bath-streets, &c The total receipts were £11,439. The payments included an intern of £8,000. to the trustees of the Lunatic Asylum, for the residue of land; and the amount carried down was £3,439. 16s. 5d., of which £3,000/. was owing the corporation, on bond at 5 per cent; so that the Infirmary was receiving from the baths about £170 a-year. This account closed the business of the adjourned annual meeting.

References

[1] List of Fellows of the Royal Society 1660-2019 The Royal Society February 2020

[2] (Google, 2022) www.archiveshub.jisc Charles White 1728-1813 accessed 17th February 2022

[3] Brockbank, William. Portrait of a Hospital 1752 – 1948 To Commemorate the Bi-Centenary Of The Royal Infirmary Manchester William Heinemann Ltd 1952 p.32

[4] Brockbank, William. Portrait of a Hospital 1752 – 1948 To Commemorate the Bi-Centenary Of The Royal Infirmary Manchester William Heinemann Ltd 1952 p.10

[5] Brockbank, William. Portrait of a Hospital 1752 – 1948 To Commemorate the Bi-Centenary Of The Royal Infirmary Manchester William Heinemann Ltd 1952 p.10

[6] Renaud, F. M.D., F.S.A. A Short History of the Rise and Progress of the Manchester Royal Infirmary 1752 to 1877 1898 p.7

[7] Brockbank, William. Portrait of a Hospital 1752 – 1948 To Commemorate the Bi-Centenary Of The Royal Infirmary Manchester William Heinemann Ltd 1952 p.2

[8] Brockbank, William. Portrait of a Hospital 1752 – 1948 To Commemorate the Bi-Centenary Of The Royal Infirmary Manchester William Heinemann Ltd 1952 p.26

[9] Brockbank, William. Portrait of a Hospital 1752 – 1948 To Commemorate the Bi-Centenary Of The Royal Infirmary Manchester William Heinemann Ltd 1952 p.161

[10] Brockbank, William. Portrait of a Hospital 1752 – 1948 To Commemorate the Bi-Centenary Of The Royal Infirmary Manchester William Heinemann Ltd 1952 p.158

[11] Renaud, F. M.D., F.S.A. A Short History of the Rise and Progress of the Manchester Royal Infirmary 1752 to 1877 1898 p.21

[12] Brockbank, William. Portrait of a Hospital 1752 – 1948 To Commemorate the Bi-Centenary Of The Royal Infirmary Manchester William Heinemann Ltd 1952 p.26

[13] Aston, Joseph. The Manchester Guide – A Brief Description of the Towns of Manchester and Salford  The Public Buildings and the Charitable and Literary Institutions 1804 p.179

[14] NOTICE hereby Given The Manchester Mercury – Tuesday 26 June 1781 p.1

[15] Timperley, C. HAnnals of Manchester Biographical, Historical, Ecclesiastical and Commercial from the earliest period to the close of the year 1839 p.57 and Aston, Joseph The Manchester Guide A Brief Historical Description of the Towns or Manchester and Salford The Buildings and the Charitable and Literary Institutions Printed and Sold by Joseph Aston 1804 p.155

[16] ‘Vails’ is a term used to describe a ‘gratuity’ a ‘tip’.

[17] NOTICE hereby Given Leeds Intelligencer – Tuesday 22 May 1781 p.2, Tuesday 26 June 1781 p.1, Tuesday 31 July 1781 p.1

[18] Aston, Joseph. The Manchester Guide – A Brief Description of the Towns of Manchester and Salford The Public Buildings and the Charitable and Literary Institutions 1804 p.169

[19] Aston, Joseph. The Manchester Guide – A Brief Description of the Towns of Manchester and Salford The Public Buildings and the Charitable and Literary Institutions 1804 p.179

[20] ‘Copper Room’ is probably a miss-spelling of ‘Cupper Room’. A room in which ‘Cupping’ is practiced.

[21] Brockbank, William. Portrait of a Hospital 1752 – 1948 To Commemorate the Bi-Centenary Of The Royal Infirmary Manchester William Heinemann Ltd 1952 p.28

[22] Terms of Bathing Manchester Mercury Tuesday 30 April 1811 p.1

[23] Renaud, F. M.D., F.S.A. A Short History of the Rise and Progress of the Manchester Royal Infirmary 1752 to 1877 1898 p.84

[24] Renaud, F. M.D., F.S.A. A Short History of the Rise and Progress of the Manchester Royal Infirmary 1752 to 1877 1898 p.95

[25] Renaud, F. M.D., F.S.A. A Short History of the Rise and Progress of the Manchester Royal Infirmary 1752 to 1877 1898 p.97

[26] Pigot & Slater’s General and Classified Directory of Manchester and Salford 1841 p.135

[27] Brockbank, William. Portrait of a Hospital 1752 – 1948 To Commemorate the Bi-Centenary Of The Royal Infirmary Manchester William Heinemann Ltd 1952 p.79

[28] Brockbank, William. Portrait of a Hospital 1752 – 1948 To Commemorate the Bi-Centenary Of The Royal Infirmary Manchester William Heinemann Ltd 1952 p.79

[29] Brockbank, William. Portrait of a Hospital 1752 – 1948 To Commemorate the Bi-Centenary Of The Royal Infirmary Manchester William Heinemann Ltd 1952 p.79

[30] Brockbank, William. Portrait of a Hospital 1752 – 1948 To Commemorate the Bi-Centenary Of The Royal Infirmary Manchester William Heinemann Ltd 1952 p.79

[31] Brockbank, William. Portrait of a Hospital 1752 – 1948 To Commemorate the Bi-Centenary Of The Royal Infirmary Manchester William Heinemann Ltd 1952 p.79

[32] Brockbank, William. Portrait of a Hospital 1752 – 1948 To Commemorate the Bi-Centenary Of The Royal Infirmary Manchester William Heinemann Ltd 1952 p.79

[33] MANCHESTER PUBLIC BATHS, INFIRMARY GATES Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser – Saturday 12 April 1845 p.1

[34] MANCHESTER PUBLIC BATHS Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser – Saturday 26 April 1845 p.5

[35] Brockbank, William. Portrait of a Hospital 1752 – 1948 To Commemorate the Bi-Centenary Of The Royal Infirmary Manchester William Heinemann Ltd 1952 p.45

[36] Brockbank, William. Portrait of a Hospital 1752 – 1948 To Commemorate the Bi-Centenary Of The Royal Infirmary Manchester William Heinemann Ltd 1952 p.26

[37] Brockbank, William. Portrait of a Hospital 1752 – 1948 To Commemorate the Bi-Centenary Of The Royal Infirmary Manchester William Heinemann Ltd 1952 p.27

[38] Brockbank, William. Portrait of a Hospital 1752 – 1948 To Commemorate the Bi-Centenary Of The Royal Infirmary Manchester William Heinemann Ltd 1952 p.75

[39] Renaud, F. M.D., F.S.A. A Short History of the Rise and Progress of the Manchester Royal Infirmary 1752 to 1877 1898 p.108

[40] Pigot & Slater’s General and Classified Directory of Manchester and Salford 1841 p.135

[41] Brockbank, William. Portrait of a Hospital 1752 – 1948 To Commemorate the Bi-Centenary Of The Royal Infirmary Manchester William Heinemann Ltd 1952 p.12

[42] Brockbank, William. Portrait of a Hospital 1752 – 1948 To Commemorate the Bi-Centenary Of The Royal Infirmary Manchester William Heinemann Ltd 1952 p.17

[43] Brockbank, William. Portrait of a Hospital 1752 – 1948 To Commemorate the Bi-Centenary Of The Royal Infirmary Manchester William Heinemann Ltd 1952 p.27

[44] Pigot & Slater’s General and Classified Directory of Manchester and Salford 1841 p.135

[45] Pigot & Deans’ New Directory of Manchester, Salford &c for 1821.-2 p.209

[46] Pigot & Deans’ New Directory of Manchester, Salford &c for 1821.-2 p.36

[47] Renaud, F. MD., F.S.A. A Short History of the Rise and Progress of the Manchester Royal Infirmary 1652 to 1877 p.79

[48] Brockbank, William. Portrait of a Hospital 1752 – 1948 To Commemorate the Bi-Centenary Of The Royal Infirmary Manchester William Heinemann Ltd 1952 p.40

[49] Pigot & Deans’ New Directory of Manchester, Salford &c for 1821.-2 p.82

[50] Brockbank, William. Portrait of a Hospital 1752 – 1948 To Commemorate the Bi-Centenary Of The Royal Infirmary Manchester William Heinemann Ltd 1952 p.40

[51] Renaud, F. M.D., F.S.A. A Short History of the Rise and Progress of the Manchester Royal Infirmary 1752 to 1877 1898 p.82

[52] Renaud, F. M.D., F.S.A. A Short History of the Rise and Progress of the Manchester Royal Infirmary 1752 to 1877 1898 p.92

[53] CUPPING W. Haworth Manchester Guardian Saturday 19th March 1825 p.1

[54] CUPPING AND LEECHING William Gaylor Public Baths Manchester Guardian Saturday 16th July 1825 p.1

[55] Pigot & Deans’ New Directory of Manchester, Salford &c for 1821.-2 p.58

[56] Brockbank, William. Portrait of a Hospital 1752 – 1948 To Commemorate the Bi-Centenary Of The Royal Infirmary Manchester William Heinemann Ltd 1952 p.73

[57] Renaud, F. M.D., F.S.A. A Short History of the Rise and Progress of the Manchester Royal Infirmary 1752 to 1877 1898 p.108

[58] Renaud, F. MD., F.S.A. A Short History of the Rise and Progress of the Manchester Royal Infirmary 1652 to 1877 p.108

[59] Brockbank, William. Portrait of a Hospital 1752 – 1948 To Commemorate the Bi-Centenary Of The Royal Infirmary Manchester William Heinemann Ltd 1952 p.75

[60] Manchester Courier and Lancashire Advertiser Saturday 31st July 1886 p.

[61] Renaud, F. M.D., F.S.A. A Short History of the Rise and Progress of the Manchester Royal Infirmary 1752 to 1877 1898 p.121

[62] The Infirmary Bath Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser Saturday 2 October 1847 p.5

[63] Manchester Royal Infirmary Baths. By CAPES & SMITH, Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser Saturday 25 September 1847 p.8

[64] Manchester Royal Infirmary Adjourned Annual Meeting Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser Saturday 01 September 1849 p.5

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